Essay economic crisis 2008

This guidance was intended to provide monetary stimulus through lowering the term structure of interest rates, increasing inflation expectations or decreasing prospects of deflation , and reducing real interest rates.

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Another set of non-traditional policies consisted of the large scale asset purchase LSAP programs. With the federal funds rate near zero, the asset purchases were implemented to help push down longer-term public and private borrowing rates. These purchases provided support for the housing market, which was the epicenter of the crisis and recession, and also helped improve broader financial conditions.

2008 Financial Crisis: Iceland's Then & Now Essay examples

As of this writing in , however, real GDP is only a little over 4. Moreover, the increased focus on financial stability and regulatory reform, the economic side effects of the European sovereign debt crisis, and the limited prospects for global growth in and speak to how the aftermath of the Great Recession continues to be felt today. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The crisis that occurred in which was the most recent and will not most probably be the last was the most severe and the most global since the Great Depression of the s. I must not fail to point out where this crisis started from or its origin.

Financial crisis is always associated with the financial systems of global powers, and the one that happened in was no exception. Since the collapse of Soviet Union, United States has been the dominant superpower and while momentarily being the most influential and extremely powerful nation was full of assurance that economic liberalization and the rapid growth of communications technology would give the world economic expansion.

The move towards integrated global economy has been instrumental in the amassing of wealth by a few individuals which has created inequality.

We human beings have always been obsessed with money, and have the excessive desire to acquire more of it. And generally people tend to spend more than they have; banks are willing to give loans and these loans some will be paid back and some will not be paid back, by so doing this is creating huge debts that have the potentiality to cause a dramatic effect to the financial set up of the country.

This is part of the reasons why from time to time Central banks pumps money into the financial system so as to have enough money in circulation. Before the start of the crisis financial institutions mortgage brokers and bankers were high spirited and excited about the financial bubbles that they became very optimistic and began to take huge financial risks. The professionals put in charge to manage public finance tend to ignore warnings and fail to ask questions, and not able to manage evolving risks.

Essays on the Global Financial Crisis :

Failures in the financial regulation and the lack for proper supervision: When it comes to finance, there must be laws and rules put in place to govern the procedures. These principles must be adhered to irrespective of personality or circumstances. Financial experts put in charge of all financial institutions must discharge their duties effectively and professionally by acknowledging that they are there foremost to protect public money and to regulate the financial system if possible overhaul them from time to time. Financial institutions should not regulate themselves. When financial institutions regulate themselves, security protection that ensures safety and avoid sudden and widespread disaster of public money could be removed or not followed strictly.

With this approach trillions of dollars will be vulnerable.

The 2008 Financial Crisis: Crash Course Economics #12

By governments allowing financial firms the choice to select their own preferred regulators to work with always results in the supervising being weak. In the financial system, regulators have lots of powers in different areas to protect it the financial system but out of their own reasons they do not do so, that is oversight.

Causes of the Financial Crisis

The collapse of the housing bubble: The financial crisis of which started in the US as the result of a downturn in real estate values caused primarily by rising defaults in subprime mortgages. The government encouraged financial institutions to make mortgage loans available to low income earners and the underprivileged in their various communities under the Community Reinvestment Act CRA in an effort to bridge racial equality and increasing homeownership by lending one hundred percent loans for mortgages with no down payments.

In the past there had been charges of racial discrimination with regards to not approving housing loans to minorities and the low income earners. To facilitate the granting of this mortgage loans a lot of times did not require all necessary documentations from the borrower and their income details. In this case a lot of this underprivileged income earners were paid on cash basis, so there was no official evidence of verifying there actual income. But a lot of subprime lending did not take place under CRA sponsorship.

There were lots of little programs developed by the US government at both the federal, state and local levels intended to encourage more people to buy homes, thereby channelling more artificial demand into the housing sector like The Pro-ownership Tax Code. Developers were frequently receiving hand outs, free land, new roads and tax privileges to build new homes.

First-time homebuyers in some areas received thousands of dollars tax credit.

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There were special treatments in agreement to buy a home as an investment, for example if a couple bought a house for half a million dollars and sold it for one million they will not pay capital gains tax, but if that couple invest in business that same money in stock or any other business that is not real estate and later sell that business for profit they will pay capital gains taxes of fifteen percent. Woods Jr. Instead they should be extended to as many other kinds of purchases as possible, in order not to provide artificial stimulus to any sector of the economy.

This system stimulated growth in the production of longer term projects such as construction, raw materials and capital goods. So this low interest rate made construction and real estate flourish vigorously in the early Real estate is not a common category of products that all consumers demand because of affordability in terms of credibility and finance. In order wards not enough consumers out there could afford to purchase expensive homes.

So the Federal Reserve Fed came up the idea to increase money supply through banks, and banks with loose lending principles made home purchases went beyond the usual, and the notion of living the American dream was not far-fetched. A fairly large literature investigates the impact of financial crisis on large, complex and interconnected banks. The great recession did affect banks in different ways, depending on the funding capability of each bank.

The Great Recession – Causes and Effects of the 2008-2009 Financial Crisis

Kapan and Minoiu find that banks that were ex ante more dependent on market funding and had lower. Mr Laux works as a professor of finance at the Goethe University in Frankurt and his research has been published in many journals. He has done. The financial and political systems have always played a major role in stabilizing the society and ensuring a smooth transition between public policies and economic activities.

Interestingly, the root of the problem comes from the corruption of the financial industry and how the political figures respond to the crisis. This response paper corresponds. In , the US experienced the traumatic chaos of a financial downturn, whose effects rippled throughout Europe and Asia. Many economists consider it the worst crisis since the Great Depression, and its alarming results are still seen today, a long six years later.

The causes are manifold, but can be found substantially rooted in illogical investments and greedy schemes. Before any of the risky moneymaking endeavors, investors traditionally would have gone to the US Federal Reserve to buy treasury bills, a safe and profitable investment. The banks then created a new idea—linking investors to homeowners through mortgages.

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Ordinarily, a mortgage broker would connect a house-buying family to a mortgage lender, who would then supply them with a mortgage.